The structural face of competition, cooperation and coopetition inside business networks

The structural face of competition, cooperation and coopetition inside business networks

Patrycja Klimas


Keywords: structural analysis, networking, social network analysis, cooperation, collaboration, coopetition, competition


Summary: The structural view on networking as well as the application of the social network analysis in the area of inter-organizational network theory have become more and more popular recently. However, little attention in the previous literature has been paid to the quantitative and structural exploration of networking processes which occur inside i.e. collaboration, competition and coopetition. Drawing on a resource based view and social network analysis, the article presents the usefulness of structural analysis for networking improvement. This research contributes to the network theory by presenting the possible ways of using structural measurements for networking strategy adoption and by applying structural measurements to the seldom explored area of coopetition processes inside networks. Furthermore, some managerial implications as well as some limitations of the presented methods are shown at the end of the paper.





P., Goodwin, N., Peck, E., Freeman, T., Managing Networks of Twenty-First Century Organizations. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, 2006.

Abrahamson, E., Rosenkopf, L., Social Network Effect on the Extent of Innovation Diffusion: A Computer Simulation, “Organization Science”, 8(3), pp. 289-309, 1997.

Ahuja, G., Collaboration Networks, Structural Holes, and Innovation: A Longitudinal Study, “Administrative Science Quarterly”, 45, pp. 425-455, 2000.

Barney, J. B., Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage, “Journal of Management”, 17(1), pp. 99-120, 1991.

Bengtsson, M., Kock, S., Cooperation and Competition in Relationships Between Competitors in Business Networks, “Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing”, 14(3), pp. 178-193, 1999.

Bengtsson, M., Kock, S., Coopetition in Business Networks—to Cooperate and Compete Simultaneously, “Industrial Marketing Management”, 29, pp. 411-426, 2000.

Borgatti, S. P., Mehra, A., Brass, D. J., Labianca, G., Network Analysis in the Social Sciences, “Science”, 323(5916), pp. 892-895, 2009.

Boschma, R., Proximity and Innovation: A Critical Assessment, “Regional Studies”, 39(1), pp. 61-74, 2005.

Boschma, R. A., Ter Wal, A. L. J., Knowledge Networks and Innovative Performance in an Industrial District. The Case of a Footwear District in the South of Italy, “Industry and Innovation”, 14(2), pp. 177-199, 2007.

Boutilier, R. G., Social Capital in Firm–Stakeholder Networks. A Corporate Role in Community Development, “JCC 26”, pp. 121-134, 2007.

Broekel, T., Hartog, M., Explaining the Structure of Inter-organizational Networks Using Exponential Random Graph Models: Does Proximity Matter?, “Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography”, 1107, 2011.

Burt, R. S., Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1992.

Burt, R. S., Structural Holes versus Network Closure as Social Capital [in:] Lin, N., Cook, S. K., Burt R. S. (eds.) Social Capital: Theory and Research. Aldine de Gruyter, 2001.

Cross, R., Parker, A., Prusak, L., Borgatti, S. P., Knowing What We Know: Supporting Knowledge Creation and Sharing in Social Networks, “Organizational Dynamics”, 30(2), pp. 100-120, 2001.

Czakon, W., Paradygmat sieciowy w naukach o zarządzaniu, „Przegląd Organizacji”, 11, pp. 3-8, 2011.

Czakon, W., Sieci w zarządzaniu strategicznym. WoltersKluwer Business, Warszawa, 2012.

de Laat, M., Lally, V., Lipponen, L., Simon, R. J., Investigating Patterns of Interaction in Networked Learning and Computer-supported Collaborative Learning: A Role for Social Network Analysis, “Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning”, 2(1), pp. 41-59, 2007.

Dhanaraj, C., Parkhe, A., Orchestrating Innovation Networks, “Academy of Management Review”, 31(3), pp. 659-669, 2006.

Doz, L., Hamel, G., Alliance Advantage: The Art of Creating Value Through Partnering. Wydawnictwo Helion, Gliwice (Polish edition), 2006.

Dyer, J. H., Singh, H., The Relational View: Cooperative Strategy and Sources of Interorganizational Competitive Advantage, “Academy of Management Review”, 24, pp. 660-679, 1998.

Eisenhardt, K. M., Graebner, M. E., Theory Building From Cases: Opportunities and Challenges, “Academy of Management Journal”, 50(1), pp. 25-32, 2007.

Gargiulo, M., Benassi, M., Trapped in Your Own Net? Network Cohesion, Structural Holes, and the Adaptation of Social Capital, “Organization Science”, 11(2), pp. 183-196, 2000.

Gnyawali, D. R., Madhavan, R., Cooperative Networks and Competitive Dynamics: A Structural Embeddedness Perspective, “Academy of Management Review”, 26(3), pp. 431-445, 2001.

Gnyawali, D. R., Park, R., Co-opetition and Technological Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Multilevel Conceptual Model, “Journal of Small Business Management”, 47, pp. 308-330, 2009.

Granovetter, M. S., The Strength of Weak Ties, “American Journal of Sociology”, 78(6), pp. 1360-1380, 1973.

Gulati, R., Alliances and Networks, “Strategic Management Journal”, 19(4), pp. 293-317, 1998.

Gulati, R., Network Location and Learning: the Influence of Network Resources and Firm Capabilities on Alliance Formation, “Strategic Management Journal”, 20(5), pp. 397-420, 1999.

Gulati, R., Managing Network Resources. Alliances, Affiliations and Other Relational Assets. Oxford University Press, 2007.

Hoffmann, W. H., Naumann, K., Speckbacher, G., The Effect of Interorganizational Trust on Make-or-Cooperate Decisions: Disentangling Opportunism-Dependent and Opportu-nism-Independent Effects of Trust, “European Management Review”, 7, pp. 101-115, 2010.

Jarillo, J. C., On Strategic Networks, “Strategic Management Journal”, 9(1), pp. 31-41, 1988.

Jędrysik, P., Analiza sieciowa jako instrument usprawniający orkiestrację sieci, „Przegląd Organizacji”, 10, pp. 28-32, 2010.

Klimas, P., Analiza sieciowa w naukach o zarządzaniu [in:] Czakon, W. (ed.) Podstawy metodologii badań w naukach o zarządzaniu. Wolters Kluwer, Warszawa 2013.

Klimas, P., Sieci innowacji. Implikacje bliskości organizacyjnej. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach, Katowice, 2014.

Kogut B., The Network as Knowledge: Generative Rules and the Emergence of Structure, “Strategic Management Journal”, 21, pp. 405-425, 2000.

Lakshman, C., Attributional Assumptions of Organizational Schools of Thought: Classification, Evaluation and Managerially Relevant Knowledge, “European Management Review”, 9, pp. 153-167, 2012.

Lee, S., Kim, M. S., Inter-technology Networks to Support Innovation Strategy: An Analysis of Korea’s New Growth Engines, “Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice”, 12(1), pp. 88-104, 2010.

Liebeskind, J. P., Oliver, A. L., Zucker, L., Brewer, M., Social Networks, Learning, and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms, “Organization Science”, 7(4), pp. 428-443, 1996.

Lorenzoni, G., Lipparini, A., The Leveraging of Interfirm Relationships as a Distinctive Organizational Capability: A Longitudinal Study, “Strategic Management Journal”, 20(4), pp. 317-338, 1999.

Marin, A., Wellman, B., Social Network Analysis: An Introduction [in:] Carrington, P., Scott, J., (eds.), Handbook of Social Network Analysis. Sage, London, 2010.

Mead, S. P., Using Social Network Analysis to Visualize Project Terms, “Project Management Journal”, 32(4), pp. 32-38, 2001.

Möller, K., Rajala, A., Rise of Strategic Nets – New Modes of Value Creation, “Industrial Marketing Management”, 36, pp. 895-908, 2007.

Müller–Prothmann, T., Leveraging Knowledge Communication for Innovation. Framework, Methods and Applications of Social Network Analysis in Research and Development, “Europäische Hochschulschriften”, 3189, pp. 242-243, 2006.

Nieto, M. J., Santamaría, L., Technological Collaboration: Bridging the Innovation Gap between Small and Large Firms, “Journal of Small Business Management”, 48(1), pp. 44-69, 2010.

Ohly, S., Kase, R., Škerlavaj, M., Networks for Generating and for Validating Ideas: The Social Side of Creativity, “Innovation: Management, Policy, and Practice”, 12(1), pp. 41-52, 2010.

Osarenkhoe, A., A Study of Inter-firm Dynamics Between Competition and Cooperation – A Coopetition Strategy, “Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management”, 17(3/4), pp. 201-221, 2010.

Pattison, P., Carley, K., Breiger, R., (eds.), Dynamic Social Network Modeling and Analysis: Workshop Summary and Papers, “National Academies Press” 2003.

Park, S. H., Managing an Interorganizational Network: A Framework of the Institutional Mechanism for Network Control, “Organization Studies”, 17(5), pp. 795-824, 1996.

Peng, T. J. A., Bourne, M., The Coexistence of Competition and Cooperation between Networks: Implications from Two Taiwanese Healthcare Networks, “British Journal of Management”, 20, pp. 377-400, 2009.

Powell, W. W., Koput, K. W., Smith-Doerr, L., Interorganizational Collaboration and the Locus of Innovation in Biotechnology, “Administrative Science Quarterly”, 40(1), pp. 133-134, 1996.

Prahalad, C. K., Hamel, G., The Core Competence of the Corporation, “Harvard Business Review”, 68(3), pp. 79-91, 1990.

Prell, Ch., Social Network Analysis. History, Theory & Methodology. Sage, London, 2012.

Reffay, C., Chanier, T., How Social Network Analysis Can Help to Measure Cohesion in Collaborative Distance-Learning [in:] Wasson, B., Ludvigsen, S., Hoppe, U. (eds.), Designing for Change in Networked Learning Environments. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2003.

Roininen, S., Westerberg, M., Network Structure and Networking Capability Among New Ventures: Tools for Competitive Advantage or a Waste of Resources?, “Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research”, 28(15) [access:], 2008.

Romanowska, M., Alianse strategiczne w świetle koncepcji zasobowej [in:] Romanowska, M., Trocki, M., (eds.), Przedsiębiorstwo partnerskie. Difin, Warszawa, 2002.

Rowley, T., Behrens, D., Krackhardt, D., Redundant Governance Structures: An Analysis of Structural and Relational Embeddedness in the Steel and Semiconductor Industries, “Strategic Management Journal”, 21, pp. 369-386, 2000.

Scott, J., Social Network Analysis: A Handbook (2nd Edition). Sage Publications Ltd., London, 2000.

Shuman, J. C., Twombly, J., Rottenberg, D., Collaborative Communities: Partnering for Profit in the Networked Economy. Dearborn Trade, Chicago, 2001.

Teng, B.-S., Corporate Entrepreneurship Activities through Strategic Alliances: A Resource-Based Approach toward Competitive Advantage, “Journal of Management Studies”, 44(1), pp. 119-142, 2007.

Ter Wal, A. L. J., Boschma, R. A., Applying Social Network Analysis in Economic Geography: Framing Some Key Analytic Issues, “Annual Regional Science”, 43, pp. 739--756, 2009.

Tichy, N. M., Tushman, M. L., Fombrun, Ch., Social Network Analysis for Organizations, “The Academy of Management Review”, 4(4), pp. 507-519, 1979.

Tremblay, M., Côté, J., Balkin, D. B., Explaining Sales Pay Strategy Using Agency, Transaction Cost and Resource Dependence Theories, “Journal of Management Studies”, 40, pp. 1651-1682, 2003.

Tsai, W. (2002). Social Structure of "Coopetition" within a Multiunit Organization: Coordination, Competition, and Intraorganizational Knowledge Sharing, “Organization Science”, 13(2), pp. 179-190.

Van de Ven, A. H., On the Nature, Formation, and Maintenance of Relations among Organizations, “Academy of Management Review”, 1(4), pp. 24-36, 1976.

Walker, G., Kogut, B., Shan, W., Social Capital, Structural Holes and the Formation of an Industry Network, “Organization Science”, 8(2), pp. 109-125, 1997.

Walter, A., Auer, M., Ritter, T., The Impact of Network Capabilities and Entrepreneurial Orientation on University Spin-off Performance, “Journal of Business Venturing”, 21(4), pp. 541-567, 2006.

Wasserman, S., Faust, K., Social Network Analysis. Methods and Applications. Cambridge University Press, 1997.




Dokument PDF

Read 860 times